There are many types of careers that you can pursue with a Geology or Earth Science degree
- Environmental Geology: You can be involved in water and soil testing and remediation, assessment of sites for pollution types and amounts, clean-up of toxic chemicals from the water and/or soil.
- Engineering Geology: Engineering geologists work with other professionals to oversee the planning and construction of buildings, bridges, roads, dams, landfills, and tunnels. Geological engineers are experts in rock strength, stability of slopes, and the mechanics of soils.
- Hydrogeology: Hydrogeologists study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth, and the Earth's geologic past and present by using sophisticated instruments to analyze the composition of earth, rock, and water. Many geoscientists and hydrologists help to search for natural resources such as groundwater, minerals, metals, and petroleum. Others work closely with environmental and other scientists to preserve and clean up the environment.
- Field Geologist: Measure, record, or evaluate geological data, using sonic, electronic, electrical, seismic, or gravity-measuring instruments to prospect for oil or gas. May collect or evaluate core samples or cuttings.
- Geological Education: You can specialize in Middle Childhood or Secondary Education, bringing the Earth Sciences to children of a broad spectrum of ages. Teaching at the college/university level requires a Ph.D. at most institutions.
- Petroleum Geology and Economic/Mining Geology: Involves searching for and helping to mine or exploit Earth’s resources, including ore minerals, oil, natural gas, and coal.
- Science Writing and Editing: With a combination of Science and Journalism coursework, you can write or edit science articles, manuals, and other texts.
- Environmental Law: With background in the earth sciences, you can go on to study and litigate various aspects of the impact of humans on the physical environment.
- Computer Science:
You can enter graduate school to specialize in a specific area of geology or an allied field. Geologists who specialize in the following areas typically have a Master’s Degree or a Ph.D:
- Paleontology – Paleontologists study fossils found in geological formations to trace the evolution of plant and animal life and the geologic history of the Earth
- Seismology – Seismologists study earthquakes and related phenomena like tsunamis. They use seismographs and other instruments to collect data on these events.
- Hydrogeology – Hydrogeoloists study groundwater, its flow, and its pollution and remediation.
- Hydrology – Hydrologists study water and the water cycle. They use their expertise to solve problems in the areas of water quality or availability.
- Geochemistry – Geochemists use physical and organic chemistry to study the composition of elements found in groundwater, such as water from wells or aquifers, and earth materials, such as rocks and sediment.
- Geophysics – Geophysicists use the principles of physics to learn about the Earth's surface and interior. They also study the properties of Earth's magnetic, electric, and gravitational fields.
- Structural Geology – Structural Geologists study mountain building and the folding and faulting of rocks.
- Paleoclimatology – Paleoclimatologists study the Earth's climate prior to the widespread availability of records of temperature, precipitation and other instrumental data.
- Paleoceanography – Paleoceanographers study of the history of the oceans in the geologic past with regard to circulation, chemistry, biology, geology and patterns of sedimentation and biological productivity.
- Oceanography – Oceanographers study marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; construction of harbors; sediment transport; coastal processes; ocean circulation, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries.