Rawson's Comprehension & Memory Lab Publications | Comprehension & Memory Lab | Kent State University

Rawson's Comprehension & Memory Lab Publications

Learning and Memory

Knouse, L. E., Rawson, K. A., Vaughn, K. E., & Dunlosky, J. (in press).Does testing improve learning for college students with ADHD?  Clinical Psychological Science.

Vaughn, K. E., Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (in press).  Effects of successive relearning on recall: Does relearning override effects of initial learning criterion?  Memory & Cognition.

Middleton, E.L., Schwartz, M. F., Rawson, K. A., Traut, H., & Verkuilen, J. (in press).Toward a theory of learning for naming rehabilitation: Retrieval practice and spacing effects.Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research.

Wissman, K. T., & Rawson, K. A. (2016).How do students implement collaborative testing in real-world contexts?Memory, 24, 223-239.

Kornell, N., Klein, P. J., & Rawson, K. A. (2015).Retrieval attempts enhance learning, but retrieval success (versus failure) does not matter.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 283-294.

Rawson, K. A., Wissman, K. T., & Vaughn, K. E. (2015).Does testing impair relational processing? Failed attempts to replicate the negative testing effect.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 1326-1336.

Rawson, K. A., Thomas, R. C., & Jacoby, L. L. (2015).The power of examples: Illustrative examples enhance conceptual learning of declarative concepts.Educational Psychology Review, 27, 483-504.

Rawson, K. A., Vaughn, K.E., & Carpenter, S. K. (2015).Does the benefit of testing depend on lag, and if so, why? Evaluating the elaborative retrieval hypothesis.Memory & Cognition, 43, 619-633.

Wissman, K. T., & Rawson, K. A. (2015).Why does collaborative retrieval improve memory?Enhanced relational and item-specific processing.Journal of Memory and Language, 84, 75-87.

Middleton, E.L., Schwartz, M. F., Rawson, K. A., & Garvey, K. (2015).Test-enhanced learning versus errorless learning in aphasia rehabilitation: Testing competing psychological principles.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 1253-1261.

Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2015). Practice tests, spaced practice, and successive relearning: Tips for classroom use and for guiding students' learning.Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 1, 72-78.

Wissman, K. T., & Rawson, K. A. (2015).Grain size of recall practice for lengthy text material: Fragile and mysterious effects on memory.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 439-455.

Rawson, K. A. (2015).  The status of the testing effect for complex materials: Still a winner.  Educational Psychology Review, 27, 327-331

Vaughn, K. E., & Rawson, K. A. (2014).Criterion learning and associative memory gains: Evidence for associative asymmetry.Journal of Memory and Language, 75, 14-26.

Lipko-Speed, A., Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2014).Does testing with feedback help grade-school children learn key concepts in science?Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 171-176.

Lipowski, S. L., Pyc, M. A., Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2014). Establishing and explaining the testing effect in free recall for young children. Developmental Psychology, 50, 994-1000.

Rawson, K. A., Dunlosky, J., Sciartelli, S. M. (2013). The power of successive relearning: Improving performance on course exams and long-term retention. Educational Psychology Review, 25, 523-548.

Vaughn, K. E., Rawson, K. A., & Pyc, M. A. (2013). Repeated retrieval practice and item difficulty: Does criterion learning eliminate item difficulty effects? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 1239-1245.

Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2013). Relearning attenuates the benefits and costs of spacing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 1113-1129.

Tauber, S. K., Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Wahlheim, C. N., & Jacoby, L. L. (2013). Self-regulated learning of a natural category: Do people interleave of block exemplars during study? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 356-363.

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D.T. (2013) Improving students' learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14, 4-58.

Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2012). Despite their promise, there's still a lot to learn about techniques that support durable learning: Comment on Roediger and Pyc (2012). Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 1, 254-256.

Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2012). When is practice testing most effective for improving the durability and efficiency of student learning? Educational Psychology Review, 24, 419-435.

Vaughn, K. E., & Rawson, K. A. (2012). When is guessing incorrectly better than studying for enhancing memory? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 899-905.

Wissman, K. T., Rawson, K. A., & Pyc, M. A. (2012). How and when do students use flashcards? Memory, 20, 568-579.

Pyc, M. A., & Rawson, K. A. (2012). Are judgments of learning made after correct responses during retrieval practice sensitive to lag and criterion level effects? Memory & Cognition, 40, 976-988.

Pyc, M. A., & Rawson, K. A. (2012). Why is test-restudy practice beneficial for memory? An evaluation of the mediator shift hypothesis.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38, 737-746.

Vaughn, K. E., & Rawson, K. A. (2011). Diagnosing criterion level effects on memory: What aspects of memory are enhanced by repeated retrieval? Psychological Science, 22, 1127-1131.

Pyc, M .A., & Rawson, K. A. (2011). Costs and benefits of dropout schedules of test-restudy practice: Implications for student learning.Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 87-95.

Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2011). Optimizing schedules of retrieval practice for durable and efficient learning: How much is enough? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140,  283-302.

Was, C. A., Dunlosky, J., Bailey, H., & Rawson, K. A. (2012). The unique contributions of the facilitation of procedural memory and working memory to individual differences in intelligence.  Acta Psychologica, 139, 425-433.

Pyc, M. A., & Rawson, K. A. (in press).  Why is test-restudy practice beneficial for memory?  An evaluation of the mediator shift hypothesis.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition.

Wissman, K. T., Rawson, K. A., & Pyc, M. A. (2011).  The interim test effect: Testing prior material can facilitate the learning of new material. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 1140-1147.

Hunt, R. R., & Rawson, K. A. (2011).  Knowledge affords distinctive processing in memory.  Journal of Memory and Language, 65, 30-405.

Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2011). Optimizing schedules of retrieval practice for durable and efficient learning: How much is enough? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Pyc, M. A., & Rawson, K. A. (2010). Why testing improves memory: Mediator effectiveness hypothesis.  Science, 330, 335.

Pyc, M. A., & Rawson, K. A. (2011). Costs and benefits of dropout schedules of test-restudy practice: Implications for student learning.Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 87-95.

Pyc, M. A., & Rawson, K. A. (2009). Testing the Retrieval Effort Hypothesis: Does greater difficulty correctly recalling information lead to higher levels of memory? Journal of Memory and Language, 60, 437-447.

Rawson, K. A., & Van Overschelde, J. P. (2008). How does knowledge promote memory? The distinctiveness theory of skilled memory.Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 646-668.

Pyc, M. A., & Rawson, K. A. (2007). Examining the efficiency of schedules of distributed retrieval practice. Memory & Cognition, 35, 1917-1927.

Van Overschelde, J. P., Rawson, K. A., Dunlosky, J., & Hunt, R. R. (2005). Distinctive processing underlies skilled memory. Psychological Science, 16, 358-361.  

Text Comprehension

Jones, A.C., & Rawson, K. A. (2016).Do reading and spelling share a lexicon? Cognitive Psychology, 86, 152-184.

Rawson, K. A., & Touron, D. R. (2015). Preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading for older adults. Psychology and Aging, 30, 809-823.

Wissman, K. T., & Rawson, K. A. (2015). Grain size of recall practice for lengthy text material: Fragile and mysterious effects on memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41, 439-455.

Sansosti, F. J., Was, C., Rawson, K. A., & Remaklus, B. (2013). Eye movements during processing of text requiring bridging inferences in adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary investigation. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7,1535-1542.

Rawson, K.A. (2012). Why do rereading lag effects depend on test delay? Journal of Memory and Language, 66, 870-884.

Hathorn, L. G., & Rawson, K. A. (2012). The roles of embedded monitoring requests and questions in improving mental models of computer-based scientific text. Computers & Education, 59, 1021-1031.

Was, C. A., Rawson, K. A., Bailey, H., & Dunlosky, J. (2011). Content-embedded tasks beat complex span for predicting comprehension.Behavior Research Methods, 43, 910-915.

Middleton, E. L., Rawson,K. A., & Wisniewski, E. J. (2011). How do we process novel conceptual combinations in context?  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 910-915.

Rawson, K. A. (2010).  Defining and investigating automaticity in reading comprehension. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Vol 52), pp. 185-230. Burlington: Academic Press.

Rawson, K. A., & Touron, D. R. (2009). Age differences and similarities in the shift from computation to retrieval during reading comprehension. Psychology and Aging, 24, 423-437.

Rawson, K. A., & Middleton, E. L. (2009). Memory-based processing as a mechanism of automaticity in text comprehension. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 353-369.

Rawson, K. A. (2007). Testing the Shared Resource Assumption in theories of text processing. Cognitive Psychology, 54, 155-183.

Rawson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (2005).  Rereading effects depend upon time of test.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 70-80.

Kintsch, W., & Rawson, K. A. (2005). Comprehension.  In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 209-226).  Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Rawson, K. A. (2004).  Exploring automaticity in text processing: Syntactic ambiguity as a test case. Cognitive Psychology, 49, 333-369.

Rawson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (2004). Exploring encoding and retrieval effects of background information on text memory. Discourse Processes, 38, 323-344.

Rawson, K. A., & Kintsch, W. (2002).  How does background information improve memory for text content?  Memory & Cognition, 30, 768-778.

Metacognition

Dunlosky, J. & Rawson, K. A. (2015).  Do students use testing and feedback while learning?  A focus on key concept definitions and learning to criterion.  Learning and Instruction, 39, 32-44.

Pyc, M. A., Rawson, K. A., & Aschenbrenner, A. J. (2014). Metacognitive monitoring during criterion learning: When and why are judgments accurate? Memory & Cognition, 42, 886-897.

Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2013). Retrieval-monitoring-feedback (RMF) technique for producing efficient and durable student learning. In R. Azevedo & V. Aleven (Eds.), International Handbook of Metacognition and Learning Technologies (pp. 67-78). New York: Springer.

Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2012). Overconfidence produced underachievement: Inaccurate self evaluations undermine students' learning and retention. Learning and Instruction, 22, 271-280.

Rawson, K. A., O’Neil, R. L., & Dunlosky, J. (2011).  Accurate monitoring leads to effective control and greater learning of patient education materials. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17, 288-302.

Dunlosky, J., Hartwig, M. K., Rawson, K. A., & Lipko, A. R. (2011). Improving college students’ evaluation of text learning using idea-unit standards. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 467-484.

Lipko, A. R., Dunlosky, J., Hartwig, M. K., Rawson, K. A., Swan, K., & Cook, D. (2009). Using standards to improve middle-school students’ accuracy at evaluating the quality of their recall.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15, 307-318.

Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2007). Improving self-evaluation of learning for key concepts in expository texts. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology.

Dunlosky, J., Baker, J. M. C., Rawson, K. A., & Hertzog, C. (2006).  Does aging influence people's metacomprehension?  Effects of processing ease on judgments of text learning.  Psychology of Aging, 21, 390-400.

Dunlosky, J., Serra, M. J., Matvey, G., & Rawson, K. A. (2005). Second-order judgments about judgments of learning.  Journal of General Psychology, 132, 335-346.

Dunlosky, J., & Rawson, K. A. (2005). Why Does Rereading Improve Metacomprehension Accuracy?  Evaluating the Levels-of-Disruption Hypothesis for the Rereading Effect. Discourse Processes, 40, 37-56.

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., & Middleton, E. L. (2005).  What constrains the accuracy of metacomprehension judgments? Testing the transfer-appropriate-monitoring and accessibility hypotheses.  Journal of Memory and Language, 52, 551-565.  

Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2002).  Are performance predictions for text based on ease of processing?  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28, 69-80.

Rawson, K. A., Dunlosky, J., & McDonald, S. L. (2002).  Influences of metamemory on performance predictions for text.  Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55A, 505-524.

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., & McDonald, S. L. (2002).  Influence of practice tests on the accuracy of predicting memory performance for paired associates, sentences, and text material. In T. J. Perfect & B. L. Schwartz (Eds.), Applied metacognition (pp. 68-92).  Cambridge, UK:  Cambridge University Press.

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., & Hacker, D. J. (2002).  Metacomprehension of science texts: Investigating the levels-of-disruption hypothesis.  In J. Otero, J. A. León, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), The psychology of science text comprehension (pp. 255-279).  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Rawson, K. A., Dunlosky, J., & Thiede, K. W. (2000).  The rereading effect:  Metacomprehension accuracy improves across reading trials. Memory & Cognition, 28, 1004-1010.

Skill Acquisition and Automaticity

Rawson, K. A., & Touron, D. R. (2015). Preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading for older adults. Psychology and Aging, 30, 809-823.

Wilkins, N. J., & Rawson, K. A. (2013). Why does lag affect the durability of memory-based automaticity: Loss of memory strength or interference? Acta Psychologica, 144, 390-396. pdf

Wilkins, N. J., & Rawson, K. A. (2011). Controlling retrieval during practice: Implications for memory-based theories of automaticity.  Journal of Memory and Language, 65, 208-221.

Rawson, K. A. (2010).  Defining and investigating automaticity in reading comprehension. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Vol 52), pp. 185-230. Burlington: Academic Press.

Wilkins, N. J., & Rawson, K. A. (2010). Loss of cognitive skill across delays: Constraints for theories of cognitive skill acquisition.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36, 1134-1149.

Rawson, K. A., & Touron, D. R. (2009). Age differences and similarities in the shift from computation to retrieval during reading comprehension. Psychology and Aging, 24,423-437.

Rawson, K. A., & Middleton, E. L. (2009). Memory-based processing as a mechanism of automaticity in text comprehension.  Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35, 353-369.

Rawson, K. A. (2004).  Exploring automaticity in text processing: Syntactic ambiguity as a test case. Cognitive Psychology, 49, 333-369.

Other Publications

Mattson, C. C., Rawson, K. A., Waechter, D., Rosneck, J., & Hughes, J. W. (2015). Health literacy predicts cardiac knowledge gains in cardiac rehabilitation participants. Health Education Journal, 74, 96-102.

Tauber, S. K., Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Rhodes, M. G., & Silzman, D. M. (2013). General knowledge norms: Updated and expanded from the Nelson and Narens (1980) norms. Behavior and Research Methods, 45, 1115-1143. pdf

Grimaldi, P. J., Pyc, M. A., & Rawson, K. A. (2010).  Normative multitrial recall performance, metacognitive judgments, and retrieval latencies for Lithuanian-English paired associates.  Behavior Research Methods, 42, 634-642.

Rawson, K. A., Gunstad, J., Hughes, J., Spitznagel, M. B., Potter, V., Waechter, D., & Rosneck, J. (2010). The METER: A brief, self-administered measure of health literacy.  Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25, 67-71.

Durso, F., Rawson, K. A., & Girotti, S. (2007). Comprehension and situation awareness. In F. Durso (Ed.), Handbook of Applied Cognition(pp. 163-193).

Van Overschelde, J. P., Rawson, K. A., & Dunlosky, J. (2004).  Category norms: An updated and expanded version of the Battig and Montague (1969) norms.  Journal of Memory and Language, 50, 289-335.

Hastie, R., & Rawson, K.A. (2004). Dynamic networks and other thought systems:  Remote ramifications of a focused persuasive communication.  In J. T. Jost, M. R. Banaji, & D. A. Prentice (Eds.), The ying and yang of social psychology:  Papers in honor of William J. McGuire (pp. 53-68).  Washington:  APA Press.

Rawson, K. A., & Miyake, A. (2002). Does relocating information in text depend upon verbal or visuospatial abilities? An individual differences analysis.  Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 801-806.