- Postdoctoral Fellow, Reproductive Endocrinology Program, Dept. Physiology and Biophysics, Colorado State University, 1982-1984.
- Assistant Professor, Dept. Biological Sciences, Kent State University, 1984-1989.
- Associate Professor, Dept. Biological Sciences, Kent State University, 1989-1995.
- Adjunct Associate Professor of Anatomy, Northeastern Ohio Univ. College of Medicine 1993-present.
- Professor, Dept. Biological Sciences, Kent State University, 1995-present.
The research in my laboratory is focused on the neurobiology of mammalian biological rhythms. The research program has been continuously funded by federal agencies for 16 years, and is presently funded by two grants from the National Institutes of Health (NINDS and NIADA). One aim of the research is to study how environmental information is integrated by the circadian clock to regulate the timing of daily behavioral, physiological and neuroendocrine rhythms. The neural elements of the clock are confined to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus, which offers an anatomically-discrete model for studying integrative processes regulating specific aspects of circadian rhythms. We are using a variety of technical approaches for the study of SCN pacemaker function ranging from the molecular to the behavioral levels in Syrian hamsters and mice. These approaches include studies of 1: in vivo SCN neurotransmitter release (aminergic, amino acid and peptidergic) and receptor pharmacology using in vivo brain microdialysis with HPLC-electrochemical detection 2: photic entrainment mechanisms using quantitative measurements of immediate-early gene activation, electrophysiological assessment of afferent pathways in the SCN slice preparation and computerized assessments of behavior relevant to circadian pacemaker function 3: non-photic entrainment mechanisms using electrical stimulation of the raphe nuclei and behavioral and serotonergic phase-shifting.
The second aim is to study the effects of ethanol on the circadian timing system. Alcohol use and withdrawal have profound effects on circadian rhythms and sleep. These two phenomena are interrelated, since disruptions in circadian functioning are a major cause of many sleep irregularities. Since sleep problems are linked to the development of of alcoholism, it is important to understand the neural processes that contribute to ethanol-associated effects in the circadian clock. Known cellular targets of ethanol include the glutamatergic signaling system, which is critical for synchronizing the clock to the environment. Our data show that ethanol treatment in hamsters and mice blocks the synchronizing action of light in the clock mechanism. We are using complementary in vivo(behavioral) and in vitro (brain slice) approaches to study this problem.
The third aim of our research is to explore the circadian basis of cocaine addiction. The mechanism of cocaine action in the circadian system is not understood. While cocaine has strongly disruptive effects on homeostatic daily rhythms in behavior and physiology, the neurophysiological mechanism(s) underlying these pathologicalactions are unknown. This research proposes to adapt new approaches based on oral cocaine self-administration delivery regimens to explore for the first time how self-administered cocaine alters the timekeeping functions of the master circadian clock of the SCN. These studies will provide important new information at several levels: at the behavioral level they will provide high resolution analyses of the effects of self-administered cocaine and its withdrawal on the rest-activity cycle; at the cellular level they will identify the neurotransmitter pathways and transmitter reuptake mechanisms that mediate cocaine's disruptive effects on clock function. Adopting a novel transgenic approach, they will also determine whether the serotonin transporter is a central target of cocaine's disruption of circadian timekeeping. These exploratory studies areanticipated to ultimately point to new clinical strategies for the treatment of cocaine misuse and addiction.
SCN Circadian Clock
Mechanism for photic setting of the circadian clock in the mamilian suprachiasmatic nuclei
Double potted entrained rhythms of daily locomotor activity of four diurnal marmosets to a 20 second light pulse designated by vertical lines\
- Glass, J.D. and Wang, L.C.H., 1978. Thermoregulatory effects of central injection of noradrenaline in the new-born Columbian ground squirrel (Spermophilus columbianus). J. Therm. Biol. 3:207-211.
- Glass, J.D. and Wang, L.C.H., 1978. Central effects of injection of noradrenaline in a hibernator, Spermophilus richardsonii. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 61:347-352.
- Glass, J.D. and Wang, L.C.H., 1979. Thermoregulatory effects of central injection of biogenic amines during arousal from hibernation. Amer. J. Physiol. 236:162-167.
- Abbotts, B., Wang. L.C.H. and Glass, J.D., 1979. Absence of evidence for a hibernating trigger in blood dialysate of the Richardson's ground squirrel. Cryobiology. 16:179-183.
- Glass, J.D. and Wang, L.C.H., 1979. Thermoregulatory effects of central injection of 5-hydroxytryptamine and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor in a hibernator. J. Therm. Biol. 4:149-156.
- Glass, J.D. and Lauber, J.K., 1981. The sites and action spectra for encephalic photoreception in the Japanese quail. Amer. J. Physiol. 240:R220-R228.
- Glass, J.D. and Lynch, G.R., 1981. Evidence for a brain site of melatonin action in the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. Neuroendocrinology, 34:1-6.
- Glass, J.D. and Lynch, G.R., 1981. The effect of superficial pinealectomy on reproduction and brown fat in the adult white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. J. Comp. Physiol. 144:145-152.
- Glass, J.D. and Lynch, G.R., 1981. Melatonin: Localization of a brain site of action.Science, 214:821-823.
- Glass, J.D. and Lynch, G.R., 1982. Diurnal change in sensitivity to intrahypothalamic injection of melatonin. Neuroendocrinology, 35:117-122.
- Glass, J.D., Amann, R.P. and Nett, T.M., 1984. Effects of season and sex on the distribution of cytosolic estrogen receptors within the brain and the anterior pituitary gland of sheep. Biol. Reprod., 30:894-902.
- Glass, J.D., Fitz, T.A. and Niswender, G.D. 1984. The receptor for estradiol in the corpus luteum of the ewe: Variation throughout the estrous cycle and distribution between large and small steroidogenic cell types. Biol. Reprod. 31:967-974.
- Amann, R., Wise, M., Glass, J.D. and Nett, T.M., 1986. Prepubertal changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of holstein bulls. Biol. Reprod. 34:71-80.
- Glass, J.D., 1986. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system of the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. Neuroendocrinology, 43:220-229.
- Wise, M.E., Glass, J.D. and Nett, T.M. 1986. Changes in the concentration of hypothalamic and hypophyseal receptors for estradiol in pregnant and postpartum ewes.J. Animal Sci. 63:1021-1028.
- Glass, J.D., Mastran, T. and Nett, T.M. 1986. Effects of estradiol and progesterone on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-immuno-reactive neuronal system of the anestrous ewe. Brain Research, 381:336-344.
- Glass, J.D. 1986. Short photoperiod-induced gonadal regression: Effects on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system of the white-footed mouse,Peromyscus leucopus. Biol. Reprod. 35:733-743.
- Glass, J.D. and McClusky, M.E. 1986. Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone-containing neurons in the brain of the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. Experientia, 43:188-190.
- Glass, J.D., Amann, R.P. and Nett, T.M. 1986. Effects of season and sex on in vitro aromatase and 17-β-oxidoreductase activities in the brain and anterior pituitary gland of gonadectomized sheep. Domestic Animal Endocrinology 3:227-236.
- Glass, J.D. and Knotts, L.K. 1987. A brain site for the antigonadal action of melatonin in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus): Involvement of the immunoreactive GnRH neuronal system. Neuroendocrinology, 46:48-55.
- Glass, J.D. and Dolan, PL. 1988. Melatonin acts in the brain to mediate seasonal steroid inhibition of luteinizing hormone secretion in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscusleucopus). Proc. Soc. Empt. Biol. Med. 188:375-380.
- Knotts, L.K. and Glass, J.D. 1988. Effects of photoperiod and β-endorphin on in vitrosecretion of testosterone in white-footed mouse testes. Biol. Reprod. 39:205-212.
- Glass, J.D., Ferriera, S.A. and Deaver, D.R. 1988. Photoperiodic adjustments in hypothalamic amines, gonadotropin-releasing hormone and β-endorphin in the white-footed mouse. Endocrinology 123:1119-1127.
- Knotts, L.K., Bruot, B.C., Glass, J.D. 1988. Melatonin does not affect in vitro secretion of testosterone from white-footed mouse testes. J. Pineal Res. 5:521-526.
- Deaver, D.R., Glass, J.D. and Reeves, J.J. 1988. Effects of estradiol on secretion of LH, hypothalamic function and testicular development in bull calves. Domestic Animal Endocrinology. 5:307-316.
- DeVries, M.J., Ferriera, S.A., and Glass, J.D. 1989. Evidence that short photoperiod-induced gonadal regression in the Mongolian gerbil is mediated by the action of melatonin in the medial hypothalamus. Brain Res. 494:241-246.
- Glass, J.D., Randolph, W.W., Ferriera, S.A., Rea, M.A., Hauser, U.E., Blank, J.L. and De Vries, M.J. 1992. Diurnal variation in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid output in the suprachiasmatic region of the Siberian hamster assessed by in vivo microdialysis: Evidence for nocturnal activation of serotonin release. Neuroendocrinology 56:582-590.
- Glass, J.D. Hauser, U.E., Randolph W., Rea, M.A. and Devries, M.J. 1993. In Vivo microdialysis of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and glutamic acid in the hamster suprachiasmatic nuclei. Am. Zool. 33:212-218.
- Glass, J.D., Hauser, U.E., Blank, J.L., Selim, M. and Rea, M.A. 1993. Differential timing of amino acid and 5-HIAA rhythms in the suprachiasmatic hypothalamus. Am. J. Physiol. R34:504-511.
- Glass, J.D., Hauser, U.E., Randolph, W.W., Ferriera, S.A. and Rea, M.A. 1993. Study of SCN neurochemistry in the conscious brain: Correlation with circadian activity rhythms and photic entrainment. J. Biol. Rhythms 8:47-52.
- Selim, M. Glass, J.D., Hauser, U.E. and Rea, M.A. 1993. Serotonergic inhibition of light-induced Fos protein expression and extracellular glutamate in the supra-chiasmatic nuclei. Brain Res. 621:181-188.
- Rea, M.A., Ferriera, S., Randolph, W., and Glass, J.D. 1993. The daily profile of extracellular glutamate concentration in the suprachiasmatic region of the Siberian hamster. Proc. Exptl. Biol. Med. 204:104-109.
- Glass, J.D., Selim, M. and Rea, M.A. 1994. Modulation of light-induced c-fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nuclei by 5-HTIA receptor agonists. Brain Res. 638:235-242.
- Rea, M.A., Glass, J.D. and Collwell, C. 1994. Serotonin modulates photic responses in the SCN circadian oscillator. J. Neuroscience 14:3635-3642.
- Glass, J.D., Lee, W., Shen, H. and Watanabe, M. 1994. Expression of immunoreactive polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.Neuroendocrinology 60:87-95.
- Srkalovic, G., Selim, M., Rea, M.A. and Glass, J.D. 1994. Serotonergic inhibition of extracellular glutamate in the suprachiasmatic nucleus assessed using in vivo brain microdialysis. Brain Res. 656, 302-308.
- Glass, J.D., Selim, M., Srkalovic, G. And Rea, M.A. 1995. Tryptophan loadingmodulates light-induced responses in the mammalian circadian system. J. Biological Rhythms 10:80-90.
- Rea, M.A., Barrera, J., Glass, J.D. and Gannon, R.L. 1995. Serotonergic potentiation of photic phase-shifts of the circadian activity rhythm. Neuroreport 6:1417-1420.
- Lee, W., Watanabe, M. and Glass, J.D. 1995. Photoperiod affects the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule and polysialic acid in the hypothalamus of the Siberian hamster. Brain Res. 690, 64-72.
- Ferriera, S.A., Rollag, M. and Glass, J.D. 1996. Pharmacokinetics of melatonin in Siberian hamster hypothalamus. Brain Res. 733, 318-320.
- Shen, H., Watanabe, M., Tomasiewicz, H., Rutishauser, U., Magnuson, T. and Glass, J.D. 1997. Mutation or enzymatic perturbation of polysialylated NCAM disrupts circadian function in the mouse. J. Neuroscience 17: 5221-5229.
- Dudley, T., DiNardo, L. and Glass, J.D. 1998. Endogenous regulation of serotonin release in the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus. J. Neuroscience 18:5045-5052.
- Shen, H., Glass, J.D., Seki, T. and Watanabe, M. 1999. Ultrastructural localization of polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the mouse.Anatomical Rec. 256:448-457.
- Dudley, T., DiNardo, L. and Glass, J.D. 1999. In vivo assessment of the midbrain raphe nuclear regulation of serotonin release in the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus. J. Neurophysiology 81:1469-1477.
- Glass, J.D. and Chen, L. 1999. Serotonergic modulation of astrocytic activity in the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neuroscience 94:1253-1259.
- Glass, J.D., Shen, H., Fedorkova, L., Chen, L., Tomasiewicz, H. And Watanabe, M. 2000. Polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule modulates photic signaling in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neurosci. Lett. 280:207-210.
- Glass, J.D., L. DiNardo and J.C. Ehlen. 2000. Dorsal raphe nuclear stimulation of SCN serotonin release and circadian phase-resetting. Brain Res. 859:224-232.
- Antle, M.C., Glass, J.D. and Mistlberger, R.E. 2000. 5-HT1A autoreceptor antagonist-induced 5-HT release in the hamster suprachiasmatic nuclei: Effects on circadian clock resetting. Neurosci. Lett. 282:97-100.
- Grossman, G., Mistlberger, R., Antle, M.C., Ehlen, C. and Glass, J.D. 2000. Sleep deprivation stimulates serotonin release in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.NeuroReport11:1929-1932.
- Glass, J.D. Tardif, S.D. Clements, R. and Mrosovsky, N. 2001. Photic and non-photic circadian phase resetting in a diurnal primate, the common marmoset. Am. J. Physiol.280:R191-R197.
- Viguie, C., Jansen, H.T., Glass, J.D., Watanabe, M., Lehman, M.N. and Karsch, F.J. 2001. Potential for PSA-NCAM-mediated neuroplasticity within the GnRH neurosecretory system of the ewe. Endocrinology 42:1317-1324.
- Shen, H., Watanabe, M., Tomasiewicz, H., and Glass, J.D. 2001. Genetic deletions of NCAM and PSA impair circadian function in the mouse. Physiology and Behavior 73:185-193.
- Ehlen, J.C., Grossman, G.H., and Glass, J.D. 2001. In vivo resetting of the hamster circadian clock involves 5-HT7 receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. J. Neuroscience21:5351-5357.
- Fedorkova L., Rutishauser, U., Prosser, R., and Glass J.D. 2002. Removal of polysialic acid from the SCN potentiates non-photic circadian phase-resetting. Physiology and Behavior 77:361-369.
- Glass, J.D., Watanabe, M., Fedorkova, L., Shen, H., Ungers G., and Rutishauser, U. 2003. Dynamic regulation of polysialylated NCAM expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neuroscience 117:203-211.
- Prosser, R.A., Rutishauser, U. and Glass, J.D. 2003. Intrinsic role of PSA-NCAM in photic phase-resetting of the mammalian circadian clock J. Neuroscience 23:652-658.
- Glass, J.D., Grossman, G.H., Farnbauch, L., and DiNardo, L. 2003. Midbrain raphe modulation of non-photic circadian clock resetting and 5-HT release in the mammalian SCN. J. Neuroscience 23:7451-7460.
- Grossman, G.H., Farnbauch, L., and Glass, J.D. 2004. Regulation of serotonin release in the intergeniculate leaflet region of the Syrian hamster. NeuroReport 15:103-106.
- Knoch, M.E., Gobes S., Pavlovska, I., Su, C., Mistlberger, R.E. and Glass, J.D. 2004. Short-term exposure to constant light promotes strong circadian phase- resetting responses to nonphotic stimuli in Syrian hamsters. Eur. J. Neuroscience 19:2779-2790.
- Duncan M.J., Franklin, K.M., Davis, V.A., Grossman, G.H., Knoch, M.E. and Glass, J.D. 2005. Short term constant light potentiation of large magnitude circadian phase-shifts by 8-OH-DPAT: Effects on serotonin receptors and gene expression in the hamster suprachiasmatic nucleus. Eur. J. Neuroscience 22:2306-2314.
- Prosser, R.A., Ollis, J.A., Grossman, G.H., Huang, Z. and Glass J.D. 2005. Polysialylated NCAM and brain-derived neurotropic factor interact for photic phase-resetting of the mouse circadian clock. Eur. J. Neuroscience
- Knoch, M.E., Siegel, D., Duncan, M.J. and Glass, J.D. 2006. Serotonergic mediation of constant light-potentiated nonphotic phase-shifting of the circadian locomotor activity rhythm in Syrian hamsters. Am. J. Physiology 291:R180-R188.
- Prosser, R.A., Mangrum, C.A., and Glass, J.D. 2008. Acute Ethanol modulates glutamatergic and serotonergic phase shifts of the mouse circadian clock in vitro.Neuroscience, 152:837-848.
- G. Kaur, R. Thind and Glass, J.D. 2009. Brief constant light accelerates serotonergic re-entrainment to large shifts of the light-dark cycle. Neuroscience 159:1430-1440.
- Ruby, C.L., Brager, A.J., DePaul, M.A., Prosser, R.A. and Glass, J.D. 2009. Chronic ethanol attenuates circadian photic phase resetting and alters nocturnal activity patterns in the hamster. Am. J. Physiology 297: R729
- Prosser, R.A. and Glass, J.D. 2009. The mammalian circadian clock exhibits acute tolerance to ethanol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Res. Published online (DOI: 0.111).
- McElroy, B., Zakaria, A., Glass, J.D. and Prosser, R.A. 2009. Ethanol modulates mammalian circadian clock phase resetting through extrasynaptic GABA receptor activation. Neuroscience 164:842-848.
- Glass, J.D., Guinn, J., Kaur, G.and Francl, J.M. 2010. Intrinsic regulation of in vivo neuropeptide Y release in SCN circadian clock. Europ. J. Neuroscience (in press).
- Brager, A..J., Ruby, C.L., Prosser, R.A., and Glass, J.D. 2010. Chronic ethanol disrupts circadian photic entrainment and daily locomotor activity in the mouse.Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Res. 30:1-8.
- Hammer, S.B., Ruby, C.L., Brager, A.J., Prosser, R.A. and Glass, J.D. 2010. Environmental modulation of alcohol intake in hamsters: Effects of wheel-running and constant light exposure. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Res. 34:1651-1658.
- Francl, J.M., Kaur, G. and Glass, J.D. 2010. Roles of light and serotonin in the regulation of gastrin-releasing peptide and arginine vasopressin output in the hamster SCN circadian clock.Europ. J. Neurosci. 32:1170-1179.)
- Francl, J.M., Kaur, G. and Glass, J.D. 2010. Regulation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide output in the SCN circadian clock. NeuroReport 21:1055-1059.
- Brager, A.J., Ruby, C.L., Prosser, R.A., and Glass, J.D. 2011. Acute ethanol disrupts photic and serotonergic circadian clock phase-resetting in the mouse. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Res. 35:1467-1474.
- Brager A.J., Prosser, R.A. and Glass, J.D. 2011. Acamprosate-responsive brain sites for suppression of ethanol intake and preference. Am. J. Physiology 301: R1032-R1043.
- Brager A.J., Prosser, R.A. and Glass, J.D. 2011. Circadian and acamprosate modulation of elevatedethanol drinking in mPer2 clock gene mutant mice. Chronobiol. International 28: 664-672.
- Glass, J.D., Brager, A., Stowie, A., and Prosser, R.A. 2012. Cocaine disrupts pathways for photic andnon-photic SCN circadian clock entrainment. Am. J. Physiology302:R740-R750.
- Brager, A.J. Stowie, A., Prosser, R.A., Glass, J.D. 2013. The mPer2 clock gene modulates cocaine actions in the mouse circadian system. Behavioral Brain Res. 243:255-260.
- Lindsay, J., Glass, J.D., Amicarelli, M., Prosser, R.A. 2014.The mammalian circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus exhibits rapid tolerance to ethanol in vivo and in vitro. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Res. 38:760-769.
- Stowie, A., Amicarelli, M. Prosser, R.A., Glass, J.D. 2014. Chronic cocaine causes long-term alterations in circadian period and photic entrainment in the mouse. Neuroscience 284:171-179.
- Prosser, R.A., Blakely, R.D., Stowie, A.C., Glass, J.D. 2014. Cocaine modulates the mammalian circadian clock through enhancing serotonergic signaling. Neuroscience 275:184-193.
- Stowie, A., Amicarelli, M., R. Mymko, Glass J.D. 2015. Circadian analysis of large human populations: Inferences from the power grid. Chronobiology International 32:255-261.
- Stowie, A., Glass, J.D. 2015. Longitudinal study of changes in daily activity rhythms over the lifespan in individual male and female C57BL/6J mice. J. Biological Rhythms 30:563-568.
Chapters and Review Articles
- Glass, J.D., 1984. Actions of the pineal gland and melatonin in the central nervous system: A possible role in the regulation of seasonal reproduction. Dom. Anim. Endocrinol., 1:105-119.
- Glass, J.D. 1988. Neuroendocrine regulation of seasonal reproduction by the pineal gland and melatonin. In: Pineal Research Reviews (R. Reiter ed.) Vol. 6:219-259. Alan Liss, Inc. New York, NY
- Mistlberger, R.E., Antle, M., Glass, J.D. and Miller, J. 2000. Behavioral and serotonergic regulation of circadian rhythms. Biol. Rhythms Res. 31:1-43.
- Prosser, R.A., Glass, J.D. 2014. Assessing ethanol’s actions in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock using In vivo and In vitro Approaches. Alcohol. 49:409-415.
- Stowie, A., Prosser, R. and Glass, J.D. 2015. Cocaine modulation of the mammalian circadian clock: potential therapeutic targets. Therapeutic Targets for Neurological Diseases 2015; 2: e607. doi: 10.14800/ttnd.607.
- Howard Hughes Medical Institute Award Nominee, 1993.
- Kent State University Distinguished Scholar, 1998.