Toward a Model of Safety and Care for Trauma Room Design

"Toward a Model of Safety and Care for Trauma Room Design" is a $2.47 m grant project awarded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). It is a cross-disciplinary collaboration between Kent State University’s Healthcare Design, Nursing, and Computer Science programs and Cleveland Clinic Akron General. The project aims to help save patients’ lives by improving the design of Level I trauma rooms. Dynamics among people, technology, organization, tasks, and the physical environment of a trauma room will be studied. The project is a five-phase cycle (problem analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation). Goals of the project include developing design strategies to integrate technology and maximize future adaptability, testing proposed design strategies for a trauma room, and developing an evidence-based model for designing trauma rooms that support efficient patient care while maintaining a safe environment. The developed design guide model is expected to contribute to patient safety in trauma rooms by serving as a primary source to direct the design of the next generation of trauma rooms.


Bayramzadeh, S., & Aghaei, P. (2021). Technology integration in complex healthcare environments: A systematic literature review. Applied Ergonomics. DOI:

To support safety and efficient care, effective integration of technology into the time-pressured, high-risk healthcare environments is critical. This systematic literature review aimed to highlight the impact of technology on the physical environment as well as the facilitators for and barriers to technology integration into complex healthcare settings, including operating rooms and trauma rooms. PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed databases were utilized, along with a hand search. PRISMA and MMAT guidelines were used for reporting and quality appraisal. Out of 1,001 articles, 20 were eligible. Identified categories included hybrid and integrated environments, technological ambiance, and information technologies. Technology integration has implications for direct patient care, efficiency, throughput, patient safety, teamwork, communication, and the perception of care. The facilitators for and barriers to technology integration included layout design, equipment positioning, and decluttering. The physical environment can improve the impact of technology on factors such as patient safety and efficiency.

Bayramzadeh, S., Ahmadpour, S., & Aghaei, P. (2021). The relationship between sensory stimuli and the physical environment in complex healthcare settings: A systematic literature review. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 103111.

Objectives: This systematic review presented the current status of literature on the outcomes resulted from sensory stimuli in critical care environments as well as the environmental interventions that can improve or impede the impact of such sensory stimuli. Methods: Articles found through a systematic search of PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed databases, in combination with a hand search, were reviewed for eligibility by two independent coders. Reporting and quality appraisals were based on PRISMA and MMAT guidelines. Results: Out of 1118 articles found, and only 30 were eligible. Final articles were comprised of issues related to noise, lighting, and temperature. Identified sensory stimuli resulted in psychological and physiological outcomes among both patients and staff. Examples include impacts on stress, delirium, sleep disturbances, poor performance and communication. The environmental factors that influence sensory stimuli included layout, room size, artificial lighting, presence of windows and acoustical interventions. Conclusion: Literature on the impact of sensory stimuli on staff is scarce compared to patients. Studies on environmental interventions are inadequate and lack structure. The physical environment can impact the patient and staff outcome resulting from noise, lighting, and temperature. When applied strategically, sensory stimuli can result in positive outcomes among patients and staff.

Bayramzadeh, S., Anthony, M. K., Sterling, M., & O’Donnell, K. (2021). The Role of the Physical Environment in Shaping Interruptions and Disruptions in Complex Health Care Settings: A Scoping Review. American Journal of Medical Quality.

Interruptions and disruptions in complex healthcare environments, such as trauma rooms, can lead to compromised workflow and safety issues due to the physical environment’s characteristics. This scoping review investigated the impact of the physical environment on interruptions and disruptions and the associated outcomes in complex environments, as they relate to the components of the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to conduct the scoping review. CINAHL, Web of Science, and PubMed databases were searched. After removing duplicates and eligibility screening, quality assessment was conducted using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). Of 1,158 articles found, 20 were selected. Poor layout configurations, tripping hazards, and technology integration were common examples. More research must be conducted to unveil the impact of the physical environment on interruptions and disruptions.

8th Annual Neuroscience Symposium at Kent State University: A Celebration of Brain Health Research, October 8-9, 2020

SURE (Summer Undergraduate Research Experience) 3-minute presentation, October 2020

2021 MNRS Annual Research Virtual Conference, March 24-27, 2021

Kent State University Undergraduate Research Symposium, April 19-23, 2021

Environmental Design Research Association (EDRA) 52, May 19-23, 2021

European Healthcare Design Conference, June 15, 2021


September 2019 - September 2023


Agency for Healthcare Research Quality