Paul Haridakis

Paul Haridakis

Communication Studies
Office Location:
241L Taylor Hall
Contact Information
(330) 672-0180


Paul conducts research on media uses and effects, law, public policy, new communication technologies, sports communication, freedom of speech and the history of communication studies. His recent work has focused on the role of YouTube and other social media in political campaigns and interpersonal communication, user-generated content, mediated interactivity and First Amendment issues related to the regulation of content in various media such as the internet and television. He teaches courses such as Freedom of Speech; Media Use and Effects; Political Communication; Communication in an Information Society; Sports Communication; Media, War & Propaganda; Research Methods; and Communication Theory. He also is a lawyer.

Scholarly, Creative and Professional Activities


  • Workneh, T., & Haridakis, P. (Eds.). (under contract). Counter-terrorism laws and freedom of expression: Global perspectives. Lanham, MD: Lexington.
  • Earnheardt, A. C., Haridakis, P., & Hugenberg, B. (Eds.). (2012). Sports fans, identity, and socialization: Exploring the fandemonium. Lanham, MD: Lexington.
  • Rubin, R. B., Rubin, A. M., Haridakis, P. M., & Piele, L. J. (2010). Research methods: Strategies and sources (7th ed.). Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
  • Haridakis, P. M., Hugenberg, B. S., & Wearden, S. T. (Eds.). (2009). War and the media: Essays on news reporting, propaganda and popular culture.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.
  • Hugenberg, L. W., Haridakis, P. M., &  Earnheardt, A. (Eds.). (2008). Sports mania: Essays on fandom and the media in the 21st century. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.


  • York, C., & Haridakis, P. (2020). Exploring genetic contributions to news-use motives and frequency of news consumption: A study of identical and fraternal twins. Mass Communication & Society.
  • Lin, M-C, Haridakis, P. M. , & Zhang, Y. B. (2020). Political party identification and intergroup attitudes: Exploring the effects of mediated and direct contact with the opposing party during a presidential campaign. International Journal of Communication, 14, 2446-2463.
  • Haridakis, P., & Humphries, Z. (2019). Uses and gratifications. In D. W. Stacks, M. B. Salwen, & K. C. Eichhorn (Eds.), An integrated approach to communication theory and research (3rded). New York: Routledge.
  • Ponder, J. D., & Haridakis, P. M. (2018). Social media and social networking in political campaigns/movements. In R. Alhajj & Rokne, J. (Eds). Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.
  • Beam, M. A., Haridakis, P. M., Hutchens, M. J., & Hmielowski, J. D. (2018). Social media, news platforms, and partisan exposure: Voters’ media preferences during the the 2016 presidential campaign season. In D. Schill & J. A. Hendricks (Eds.), The Presidency and Social Media: Discourse, Disruption, and Digital Democracy in the 2016 Presidential Election (pp. 37-55). New York: Routledge.
  • Child, J. T., & Haridakis, P. M. (2018). Uses and gratifications theory: Considering media use in the context of family communication. In D. O. Braithwaite, E. Suter, & K. Floyd (Eds.), Engaging theories in family communication (2nd ed., pp. 337-348). New York: Routledge
  • Lin, M-C., & Haridakis, P. (2017). Media use in a political context: An intergroup communication perspective. In H. Giles and J. Harwood (Eds.), Encyclopedia of intergroup communication. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Haridakis, P. M., Lin M-C., & Hanson, G. L. (2017). The influence of political intergroup differences and social media use on political discussion and polarization. In G. Richardson (Ed.), Social media and politics: A new way to participate in the political process (pp. 219-242).  Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2017). The social science tradition in communication studies in the United States. In J. D. Ponder (Ed.), Foundations of communication (pp.45-60). Fountainhead Press, Southlake, TX.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2017). Freedom of Expression. In J. D. Ponder (Ed.), Foundations of communication (pp.159-178). Fountainhead Press, Southlake, TX.
  • Lin, M-C., & Haridakis, P. M., & Hanson, G. (2016). The role of political identity and media selection on perceptions of hostile media bias during the 2012 presidential campaign. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media60, 425-447. 
  • Lin, M-C., & Haridakis, P. M. (2015). Golden agers, Recluse and John Wayne: Aging stereotypes and aging heroes in movie Westerns. In B. Batchelor & N. Jones (Eds.), Aging heroes: Portrayals in media and popular culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
  • Ponder, J. D., & Haridakis, P. M. (2015). Selectively social politics: The differing role of media use on political discussion Mass Communication & Society18, 281-302.
  • Xu, K., Lin, M-C, & Haridakis, P. (2015). Being addicted to Chinese Twitter: Exploring the roles of users’ expected outcomes and deficient self-regulation in social network service addiction. China Media Research, 11(2), 1-16.
  • Haridakis, P. M., Hanson, G. L., Lin, M-C, & McCullough, J. (2015). Fitting social media into the media landscape during a 2012 republican primary. In J. Hendricks & D. Schill (Eds.), Presidential campaigning and social media. Oxford University Press.  
  • Ponder, J. D., Haridakis, P. M., & Hanson, G. (2014). Social networking in political campaigns. In R. Alhajj & Rokne, J. (Eds). Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining. New York: Springer.
  • Belcher, J. D., & Haridakis, P. (2013). The role of background characteristics, music-listening motives and music selection on music discussion. Communication Quarterly, 61, 375-396.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2013). Uses and gratifications: A social and psychological perspective of media use and effects. In E. Scharrer (Ed.), Media Effects/Media Psychology. Wiley Blackwell.
  • Child, J., Haridakis, P., & Petronio, S. (2012). Blogging privacy rule orientations, privacy management, and content deletion practices: The variability of online privacy management activity at different stages of social media use. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1859-1872.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2012). Sports viewers and intergroup-related communication. In H. Giles (Ed.). The handbook of intergroup communication. New York: Routledge.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2012). Media images then mediated memories now: An introduction to session 2, media culture and public memory. In L. Davis and C. Barbato (Eds.), Democratic narrative, history and memory (pp. 67-72). Kent University Press.
  • Haridakis, P. M., & Earnheardt, A. C. (2012). Understanding fans’ consumption and dissemination of sports: An introduction. In A. C. Earnheardt, P. Haridakis, & B. Hugenberg (Eds.). Sports fans, identity, and socialization: Exploring the fandemonium (pp. 1-6). Lanham, MD: Lexington
  • Belcher, J. D., & Haridakis, P. (2012). From “alternative” to “trance”: The role of music in facilitating political group activity and activism. Ohio Communication Journal, 49, 145-175.
  • Hanson, G. L., Haridakis, P. M., & Sharma, R. (2011). Differing uses of YouTube during the 2008 U.S. Presidential primary election. Electronic News Journal5, 1-19. 
  • Haridakis, P., & Hanson, G. (2011). Campaign 2008: Comparing YouTube, social networking and other media use among younger voters and older voters. In J. A. Hendricks & L. L. Kaid (Eds.), Techno-politics and presidential campaigning: New technologies, new voices, and new voters. Routledge.
  • Hanson, G. L., Haridakis, P. M., Wagstaff, A., Sharma, R., & Ponder, J. D. (2010). The 2008 presidential campaign: Political cynicism in the age of Facebook, MySpace and YouTube. Mass Communication & Society, 13, 584-607.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2010). The religious explorations of Thomas Jefferson and his public and private expressions of faith. In D. Weiss (Ed.), What democrats talk about when they talk about God (pp. 11-24). Lexington Books/ Rowan & Littlefield.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2010). Rival sports fans and intergroup communication. In H. Giles, S. Reid, & J. Harwood (Eds.), The dynamics of intergroup communication. New York: Peter Lang.
  • Haridakis, P. M., & Hanson, G. (2009). Social interaction and co-viewing with YouTube: Blending mass communication reception and social connection. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 53, 317-335.
  • Haridakis, P. M. & Hugenberg, L. W. (2009). NASCAR’s role post-9/11: Supporting all things American. In M. Morgan (Ed.), The impact of 9/11 on the media, arts, and entertainment: The day that changed everything (pp. 235-250). Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Haridakis, P. M. & Ferris, A. (2009). The use of “speech zones” to control public discourse in the 21st century. In M. Morgan (Ed.), The impact of 9/11 and the new legal landscape: The day that changed everything (pp. 39-56). Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Haridakis, P. M., Hugenberg, B. S., & Wearden, S. T. (2009). The impact of war on communication theory, research and the field of communication. In P. M. Haridakis, B. S. Hugenberg, & S. T. Wearden (Eds.), War and the media: Essays on news reporting, propaganda and popular culture (pp. 3 22). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2009). Teaching and fostering freedom of speech: Shouldn’t that be “basic” to the “basic course”? In B. Hugenberg & L. W. Hugenberg (Eds.), Teaching Ideas for the Basic Communication Course, Volume 12 (pp. 27-36). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
  • Kim, J., & Haridakis, P. M. (2009). The role of Internet user characteristics and motives in explaining three dimensions of Internet addiction. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14, 988-1015.
  • Wang, Y., Sun, S., & Haridakis, P. M. (2009). Internet use and cross-cultural adaptation: Testing a model of Internet use in the cross-cultural adaptation context. Journal of Intercultural Communication20. Available at
  • Earnheardt, A. C., & Haridakis, P. M. (2009). An examination of fan-athlete interaction: Fandom, parasocial interaction, and identification. Ohio Communication Journal, 47, 27-53.
  • Haridakis, P. M., & Wearden, S. T. (2008). Media influence to audience mindsets: The changing face of mediated communication in the 20th and 21st centuries. In L. Hanson, & S. Kirca Schroeder (Eds.). Proceedings of the International Conference on Communication, Mass Media & Culture: Freedom and Prejudice (pp. 446-460). Istanbul: Bacesehir University.
  • Parker, R. E., & Haridakis, P. M. (2008). Development of an organizational identification scale: Integrating cognitive and communicative conceptualizations. Journal of Communication Studies1(3-4), 105-126.
  • Hanson, G. L., & Haridakis, P. M. (2008). YouTube users watching and sharing the news: A uses and gratifications approach. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 11(3). Available at;cc=jep;view=text;rgn=main;idno=3336451.0011.305  
  • Sun, S., Rubin, A. M., & Haridakis, P. M. (2008). The role of motivation and media involvement in explaining Internet dependency. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media52, 408-431.
  • Pornsakulvanich, V., Haridakis, P. M., & Rubin, A. M. (2008). The influence of dispositions and Internet-use motivation on online communication satisfaction and relationship closeness. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 2292-2310.
  • Earnheardt, A., & Haridakis, P. M. (2008). Exploring fandom and motives for viewing televised sports. In L. W. Hugenberg, P. M. Haridakis, &  A. Earnheardt (Eds.), Sports mania: Essays on fandom and the media in the 21st century (pp. 158-171). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.
  • Spinda, J., & Haridakis, P. M. (2008). Exploring the motives of fantasy sports: A uses-and gratifications approach. In L. W. Hugenberg, P. M. Haridakis, &  A. Earnheardt (Eds.), Sports mania: Essays on fandom and the media in the 21st century (pp. 187-199). Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company.
  • Haridakis, P. M., & Whitmore, E. (2006). Understanding electronic media audiences: The pioneering research of Alan M. Rubin. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 50, 766-774.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2006). Men, women, and televised violence: Predicting viewer aggression in male and female television viewers. Communication Quarterly54, 227-255.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2006). Citizen access and government secrecy. Saint Louis University Public Law Review, 25, 3-32.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2006). Self-disclosure, immediacy, involvement and parasocial interaction. Ohio Communication Journal, 41, 69-97.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2005). The tension between national/homeland security and the first amendment in the new century. Temple University Political & Civil Rights Law Review14, 433-454.
  • Haridakis, P. M., & Rubin, A. M. (2005). Third-person effects in the aftermath of terrorism. Mass Communication & Society, 8, 39-59.
  • Rubin, A. M., Haridakis, P. M., Hullman, G., S. Sun, Chikombero, P., & Pornsakulvanich, V. (2005). Television exposure not predictive of terrorism fear. In  E. Kelley Grusin and S. H. Utt (Eds.), Media in an American Crisis: Studies of Sept. 11, 2001 (pp. 191-206). Lanham, MD: University Press of America. (Reprint of article in Newspaper Research Journal, 24, 128-145).
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2004). Homeland security and democracy in the United States during the war on terrorism. In N. Ammar (Ed.), Democracy and homeland security: Strategies, controversies, and impact. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2004). The war on terrorism: Military tribunals and the First Amendment. Communication Law & Policy, 9, 317-349.
  • Rubin, A. M., Haridakis, P. M., & Eyal, K. (2003). Viewer aggression and attraction to television talk shows. Media Psychology, 5, 331-362
  • Rubin, A. M., Haridakis, P. M., Hullman, G., S. Sun, Chikombero, P., & Pornsakulvanich, V. (2003). Television exposure not predictive of terrorism fear. Newspaper Research Journal, 24, 128-145.
  • Haridakis, P. M., & Rubin, A. M. (2003). Motivation for watching television violence and viewer aggression. Mass Communication & Society, 6, 29-56.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2002). Viewer characteristics, exposure to television violence and aggression Media Psychology, 4, 323-352.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2001). The regulation of indecent but nonobscene computer-mediated expression and the First Amendment. Free Speech Yearbook, 38, 34-56.  
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2001). The right to bear (and the regulation of) arms and quills. In T. Hensley (Ed.), The boundaries of freedom of expression & order in American democracy (pp. 133-137). Kent, OH: Kent University Press.
  • Rubin, A. M., & Haridakis, P. M. (2001). Mass communication research at the dawn of the 21st century. Communication Yearbook, 24, 73-97.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (1999). Commentator ethics: A policy. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 14(4), 231-246. Haridakis, P. M., & Gonzales, J. J. (1994). Thorough preparation crucial in case OSHA shows up: A checklist for an effective response plan. Corporate Legal Times4(36), p. 31. 

Encyclopedic Articles

  • Haridakis, P. M. (2004). Korematsu v. United States. In J. Beckman (Ed.), Affirmative Action: An encyclopedia (Vol. 2, pp. 548-552). Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2004). The Federal Communications Commission. In J. Beckman (Ed.), Affirmative Action: An encyclopedia (Vol.1, pp. 385-386). Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2004). Ethnocentrism. In J. Beckman (Ed.), Affirmative Action: An encyclopedia (Vol. 1, pp.353-354). Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Haridakis, P. M. (2004). National Origin. In J. Beckman (Ed.), Affirmative Action: An encyclopedia (Vol. 2, pp. 639-640). Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Haridakis, P. M., & Bennett, R. J. (2004). The Civil Rights Act of 1991. In J. Beckman (Ed.), Affirmative Action: An encyclopedia (Vol.1, pp. 184-187). Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
  • Haridakis, P. M., & Bennett, R. J.  (2004). Sex discrimination. In J. Beckman (Ed.), Affirmative Action: An encyclopedia (Vol. 2, pp. 799-801). Westport CT: Greenwood Press.


Ph.D., Kent State University , J.D., University of Akron School of Law , B. A., University of Akron


Media Uses and Effects, Law, Public Policy, New Communication Technologies, Sports Communication, Freedom of Speech, History of Communication Studies, Media/New Media, Social Media, Mass Communication, Political Communication

Research Institutes and Initiatives

Global Understanding Research Initiative