Admit it. We have all used our smartphones at inappropriate and inopportune times: while driving, during family meals, in the bathroom or even the bedroom.

We are a society glued to our phones, but when is it considered out of our control?

According to researchers at Kent State University, the answer depends on the user.

Jian Li, Ph.D., Jacob Barkley, Ph.D., and Andrew Lepp, Ph.D., all from Kent State’s College of Education, Health and Human Services, surveyed 516 college students. They asked the students about daily smartphone use, including inappropriate times such as in class, while studying, at bedtime and late at night after lights out.

Researchers then assessed an influential personality trait known as “locus of control.” Individuals with an internal locus of control generally perceive that control is centered within themselves. Individuals with an external locus of control generally perceive that control is centered outside themselves. For example, control may rest with fate, luck, powerful others or influential objects in their environment. 

Grade point average, sleep quality, and overall happiness also were measured.

View More