Glossary | University Communications and Marketing | Kent State University

Artwork – all original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Also called art.

Bleed – any element that extends up to or past the edge of a printed page.

CMYK – abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors.

Comp – an internal proof from University Communications and Marketing.

Digital printing – refers to printing from digital-based images directly to a variety of media. Digital printing usually refers to professional printing where small-run jobs and other digital sources are printed using large-format and/or high-volume printers. Digital printing has a higher cost per page than more traditional methods, but this price is usually offset by avoiding the cost of all the technical steps required to make printing plates. It also allows for on-demand printing, short turnaround time and even a modification of the image (variable data) used for each impression.

Editing – reading the words of the document to check for errors in fact, grammar, typing or AP and university style. Also to add or remove words.

Font – the characters that make up a complete typeface and size.

Four-color printing – using the four process colors of cyan, magenta, yellow and black to create a full-color publication.

FPO – abbreviation used in layouts and mock-ups when one image is placed “for position only” until the final image can be put into place.

Ghosting – refers to the faint image appearing as a repeat of an image in a document.

Greek type – place-holding type set in Greek characters.

High resolution – relating to an image that has fine detail (300 dpi and above).

In production – the step of creating a publication where the artwork is given to the printing vendor to prepare it and turn it into its final, printed form.

Layout – the design of a proposed printed piece.

Mock-up – the complete layout of a publication in draft form with provided copy and images in place.

Negative space – space that surrounds an object in an image. Also called white space. Negative space helps to define the boundaries of positive space and brings balance to a composition.

Offset printing – the most commonly used printing method, where the printed material does not receive ink directly from a printing plate but from an intermediary blanket that receives the ink from the plate and then transfers it to the paper.

Printer’s proof – print retained by the printer as a reference and used for checking that all text, graphics and colors come out as expected before going to press.

Reverse – type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink around its outline, thus allowing the underlying color or paper to show through and form the image. The image ‘reverses out’ of the ink color. Also called knockout and liftout.

Signature – printed sheet folded at least once, possibly many times, to become part of a book, magazine or other publication.

Typeface – the name or family of a set of characters that have the same look or design. This is different from a font, which is a specific size and style of a typeface. For example, 10 point bold refers to the font. But Helvetica or Bodoni refers to the typeface design.