Fuel Cells, Clean Energy, and Sustainability
Global warming is a serious threat to human life on Earth. The Kent State Clean Energy and Sustainability Research Team works diligently to provide research, insights, and breakthroughs to the ever-evolving field of Fuel Cells, a practical technology for major reductions in global warming.
Why do we need Fuel Cells?
Humanity shares the earth with a variety of different species and animals. As Green House Gas (GHG) emissions increase, and more habitats are being destroyed, many species suddenly face a looming threat: extinction. Currently, scientists estimate that Earth is undergoing the sixth major mass extinction event, the only difference being that while mass extinctions in the past were caused by natural disasters, the current one mainly has to do with the role of human activities on the planet. The largest ingredient in Green House Gas is Carbon Dioxide (CO2) produced by burning of fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products, all of which contain carbon.
Oil and coal energy production is a dying industry as Earth enters the 21st century. As social awareness rises, the demand for lower CO2 emissions increases. The new millennium brings with it a new challenge-The Race for Clean Energy. Governments around the world are competing for a head start in what is sure to be a pivotal point in history for all of Earth’s species. Some steps have been taken to reduce CO2 emissions, but society has a long way to go before becoming emission-neutral. This will require new energy sources (wind, for example) and, for many years, a much more efficient use of fossil fuels.
Globally, standards have risen, but society has a long way to go before becoming an emission-neutral body. Fuel cell technology provides a viable clean energy solution in both mobile and stationary environments.
Why Fuel Cells?
Fuel cell technology provides a viable clean energy solution for both mobile (vehicles) and stationary (electricity production, heating etc.) applications. A fuel cell converts a fuel such as hydrogen or natural gas directly to electricity extremely efficiently, greatly reducing the CO2 production from any application. The Kent State team concentrates on fuel cells that can operate on natural gas, since it has the lowest carbon content of any fossil fuel and is readily available from existing pipelines at reasonable cost. For example, natural gas transit buses with fuel cells powering an electric motor will produce much less CO2 than the latest natural gas buses that use a modified Diesel engine.
How do Fuel Cells work?
A fuel cell is an energy conversion device. This is much different from a battery. While a battery holds and stores energy inside it, fuel cells work much like gasoline engines; they must always have fuel to produce energy.
The fuel, in this case hydrogen, enters the fuel cell from the anode side. It diffuses through a porous electrode material and oxidizes. When you add two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom, you produce water (H2O). This oxidation of hydrogen thus produces two things: electricity and water. No greenhouse gases are emitted from this process. Operation on a hydrocarbon fuel such as natural gas does produce greenhouse gas, but the amount is greatly reduced due to the fuel cell’s high efficiency.
Fig. 1: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). Fuel cells can run off of many types of fuel including hydrogen, natural gas, methane, ethane, propane, butane, methanol, dimethyl ether, and ammonia.
Fuel cells can also work in reverse. This method is called an electrolyzer. In normal settings, hydrogen is entered into the fuel cell, which produces water and electricity. When the fuel cell functions as an electrolyzer, electricity is used to split water atoms into two things: hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen produced from this process can then be stored and used to fuel the fuel cell later.
The purpose of using electrolysis is to ensure clean fuel. If the hydrogen put into the fuel cell was derived from natural gas, for example, there are hidden carbon emissions during production. To truly claim Zero Emissions, the fuel used must also be manufactured carbon-free.